David Rosium, PhD
Web 101 - Web Handling, Converting and Winding Introduction
This trademarked and award-winning course by David Rosium has been taken by about 5,000 students! The Web Handling, Converting and Winding Introduction covers the essentials of rollers, tension and nip controls, spreading and wrinkling, guiding (path control), slitting and an introduction to winding. This course is essential for anyone working with webs, web machines of any type and web customers.
May 20, 2019
This trademarked and award-winning course has been taken by about 5,000 students! The Web Handling, Converting and Winding Introduction is normally a two-day course that covers the essentials of rollers, tension and nip controls, spreading and wrinkling, guiding (path control), slitting and an introduction to winding. This course is essential for anyone working with webs, web machines of any type and web customers. This course is also a prerequisite for the Winding Machines, Mechanics and Measurements. The winding course is a two-day deep dive into winding including most defects you will ever see as well as winding related topics such as cores, mechanical and control issues unique to winders, automation and time cycles. The video-on-demand version covers the same slides and topics as a live class, but is more tightly scripted and compact. As such, the 24 modules of both courses can be completed online in less than 18 hours.
The targeted audience is the technical person responsible for most any type of web machine. However, many other positions can also benefit such as lead operators, foreman, managers, mechanical and electrical maintenance, Q/A, product development and customer service. The only prerequisite is enough job experience to be familiar with the names for the: parts of your machines, basic functions and common web/roll defects.
Training Time: Includes 24 learning modules, approximately 18 hours total.
Delivery Format: Comprehensive videos and visuals presented by subject matter expert, David Rosium.
In this module you will learn why we study web handling: to be able to run webs as fast as possible with a minimum of waste. You should be able to recognize web handling related waste including wrinkling, winding, path control (guiding), web breaks and more; as well as what factors can be used to reduce these troubles.
Rollers are the building blocks of all web manufacturing and converting machinery. Rollers perform vital functions of web routing, path and tension control. While most rollers are intended to be in traction, insufficient wrap, low friction surfaces and air entrainment all may conspire to allow the web to break loose at which time both path and tension control is lost. However, some elements, such as folding bars and pans, are intended to be in sliding. Other elements, such as floater dryers, are intended to support the web on an air cushion. It is the task of the designer, process trouble-shooter and maintenance to ensure the proper mode is maintained at all times across the entire width of the machine. It is also necessary for good machine and process performance to be sure that rollers are sized and maintained properly. In this module you will learn how to:
- Determine whether a roller is in a state of traction, sliding or floating and how to it
- Know if a nip is needed and why it is to be avoided if possible
- Size rollers (width and diameter) to avoid deflection related problems
- Determine how close roller alignment needs to be
5-6 Tension and Drive Control
Controlling tension is vital for minimizing waste and delay because many if not most web troubles are tension sensitive. We must first choose a tension range for our machinery and then a tension setpoint for a particular grade and section of the machine. We must also determine how much tension variability is tolerable. The four most common forms of tension control are: draw/speed, torque, dancer and load cell. Each has many design and maintenance details that must be attended to for good process health. No less challenging is the programming of drives. While the full-featured name brand systems are impressive in capability, hardware alone will not ensure good results. Our industry faces a crisis due to the lack of the specialized skills necessary to program and tune web drives. A consequence is that a drive upgrade may at times actually degrade performance. In this module you will learn how to
- Determine what is the best tension to set on any web and machine
- Determine which is the best tension control mode: load cells, dancers, draw or torque
- Determine if a drive point is running properly and if not, what is the probable reason
7-8 Nip Control and Nip Applications
Transport nips, such as pull rollers and winder lay on rollers, are used to move the web through machinery. Much more interesting are process nips that form and convert the web such as calendering, coating, laminating, pressing, printing and so on. While all of these nips appear quite different, they share the same underlying physics. Also, they share the same goal in that a uniform web product will require a uniform nip. There are many ways the nip can be nonuniform such as due to roller imprecision, bending deflection, loading system problems and so on. It is the task of the designer, process owner and maintenance to make sure that their nips are uniform. Finally, each specific application such as rubber covering, calendering, laminating and winding have concerns beyond the physics common to all. In this module you will learn:
- Where nips are used and why
- The stresses in between a pair of nipped rollers
- How to control nips via load control or position control
- How to determine the quality of nip control
- How to determine the best roller cover hardness
- How to combat curl
- What are the many effects of nips on winding rolls
Wrinkling is common to thin materials of most any chemistry on most any machine. As such, wrinkling may be overall the number one cause of waste in the web industries. Until recently there was no organization or science applied to this area. Now we are able to easily diagnose major wrinkling cases based on visual appearance alone. The most common cases are the Machine Direction Trough wrinkle, the Diagonal Shear wrinkle and the Baggy Web. Within the major cases are sub cases dealing with excess width, crookedness or nonuniform forming/deforming respectively. Recognizing the sub case allows one method to wrinkle reduction, namely, remove the root cause. In this module you will learn:
- How to diagnose the major case of wrinkling using only observation
- How to diagnose the subcase of wrinkling
- How the subcase determines which root cause factors matter for that wrinkle type
- How to size roller alignment and deflection standards to avoid wrinkling
- What to do about baggy webs
Spreading is used most often to prevent or remove wrinkles. It may also be used to open slits or increase web width. There are many types of spreaders ranging from modest to so powerful that the web can be torn. We must select the best spreader type for any particular application. Spreaders choices include: the compliant cover, concave, bowed roller, bent pipe, dual element, expander, edge pulls and so on. However, each has important application details that must be attended to because it is far easier to wrinkle on a spreader than it is to spread. Also important is the concept of designing tolerance in machinery with the concept of flattening. Finally, the ability to audit a machine for flatness, wrinkling and spreading is a vital web process skill.
In this module you will learn:
- Applications for spreading including wrinkle reduction, opening gaps after slitting and others
- Which spreaders are more powerful and which are less
- Why applying a spreader with too much or too little power can be problematic
- Why traction is essential to many spreader types
- Why bagginess is almost never treatable with a spreader
In this module we cover path control such as why a web does not travel in a perfectly straight line and how to move it to a required position if needed. Here we cover the major guide classes including steering, displacement, canted roller and edge pulls.
Slitting is not, strictly speaking, a web handling topic. However, it is so important to web manufacturing and converting that we include it in this course. Here we cover the major slitting methods including razor, score and shear. Emphasis is on cut quality factors.
Winding is found at the end of web manufacturing, roll-to-roll converting, and rewinding. Without much exaggeration, winding makes web manufacturing possible by providing a convenient place to store the web between process steps. In this introductory module, we will describe winding machines, mechanics and measurements. Be certain that you are familiar with the topics in modules 1-12 before beginning the winding modules.
21 Cores, Core Shafts and Chucks
In this module we describe the foundation of wound rolls which may be cores, mandrels or nothing at all in some cases. Next, we describe how to hold the roll rock steady via core shafts or chucks.
22 Winder Types
Winders can be built in many ways. However, most fall within six types. The turret and pope reel are continuous winders that follow most web manufacturing lines as well as high productivity roll-to-roll converting. The duplex and two-drum winders cut larger parent rolls into smaller shipping rolls. Finally, two specialty winders include the slipped core winder and the gap winder. This module covers the application, limitations and design highlights for each of these types.
Here rewinder productivity is measured and predicted using models. Other factors affecting productivity are also discussed including Human-Machine-Interaction. Some automation is discussed here as well as in the Extra module.
24 Mechanical and Electrical Issues
Winders are first and foremost, web handling machines. Thus, attention to rollers, tension and nip control, spreading and wrinkling are subjects that also apply here. However, winders have many issues that are more demanding, unusual or even unique. These include mechanical issues such as vibration and spreading. However, electrical issues are even more concerning. Every single drive motor on a winder is much more complicated than anything found upstream. There may be more PLC power on the winder than the entire rest of the plant or mill combined.
25 Winding Theory
The understanding of winding defects and stresses in a wound roll has evolved together. It began as the observation that the tightness/hardness of the wind mattered for some defects. Then it was found that good roll structure helped with a few more defects. However, the science of calculating stresses allow us to predict many defects and understand many more.
26 Wound Roll Defects
This module covers many of the 100 defects that are found on wound rolls. How they are formed, causes and cures are discussed in some detail.
27 Roll Quality Measurement
There are at least a dozen commercial roll quality instruments on the marketplace. While many are based on roll hardness, other measurement principles can also be useful for certain problems and products. Design and application are discussed in detail.
28 Roll Quality Inspection
Your eyes are and will always be the most useful roll quality instrument. Here we discuss several wound roll defects that are visual that have not been discussed in the earlier modules.
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All told you have more than 1,000 pages and more than ½ million words! All are searchable and keyworded. These documents cover must-know subjects of web-handling, rollers, tension and nip control, wrinkling, spreading, slitting, guiding, converting operations such as printing, coating, laminating, heating and cooling as well as industrial problem solving techniques of a wide variety. If you need to go beyond my own writings, you will find that the RoisumLibrary indexes nearly everything else ever written in the web handling areas.
Creative Thinking in Converting
An unpublished book that followed Critical Thinking in Converting (TAPPI PRESS, 2002).
Roisum Best of Index
This spreadsheet has sheets for my personal works including books, conference papers, Web Words columns, Web Wise columns, WebHandling Blog, Web101 teaching modules and Web201 YouTube clips. All are dated and keyworded and searchable. Merely click on the appropriate tab at the bottom to navigate between the various databases.
This is the text of more than 1,300 AIMCAL WebHandlingBlog posts written over more than 15 years. Fair use with attribution here would include my name as well as AIMCAL.
Defines some 1,000 technical words used in our web-industries including aliases.
A keyworded and searchable list of some 4,000 articles, books, conference papers, columns, theses and other published material by the famous, infamous and not so famous authors of web handling related material. This is most everything ever published on web-handling subject except for patents.
Roisum Web Wise
37 of my columns from AIMCAL’s Converting Quarterly. Fair use with attribution here would include my name as well as AIMCAL.
Roisum Web Words
190 of my columns from the now deceased Converting Magazine.
An emergency help guide with links that you are welcome to share as you like.
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